Intertribal Risk Analysis Symposium

Friday, December 8, 2006 - 09:00

1st Annual Intertribal Risk Analysis Symposium And Roundtable

Oneida Indian Reservation, 07-08 December 2006

A Report Provided to the Center for Risk and Economic Analysis of Terrorism Events (CREATE) at the University of Southern California and the United States Department of Homeland Security, University Programs

Lloyd Mitchell Ph.D., MPH, R.S. (Oneida), Assistant Professor, Elizabeth City State University

May 8, 2007

Executive Summary

To enhance understanding of terrorism risk and risk analysis and create opportunities for dialogue, networking, and partnerships between American Indian communities, tribal governments, non-tribal communities and businesses, gaming enterprises, tribal colleges, and interested local citizens, the Center for Risk and Economic Analysis of Terrorism Events, a U.S. Department of Homeland Security Center of Excellence at the University of Southern California, provided support to Elizabeth City State University, a Historically Black College located in Elizabeth City, NC, to coordinate an Intertribal Risk Analysis Symposium on the Oneida Indian Reservation in Green Bay, Wisconsin. By mutual agreement of tribal and non-tribal community leaders involved in symposium planning processes, a theme of "Working Together" emerged. This theme was incorporated into as many aspects of the symposium as possible, including presentations, keynotes, and social activities. Throughout the two-day event held 07-08 December 2006, approximately seventy-two (72) individuals representing twelve (12) different American Indian communities, gaming facilities, tribal colleges, or other tribal entities, and twenty-two (22) non-Indian communities, entities, colleges, or universities participated. At the conclusion of plenary activities, a roundtable discussion on risk was held, with general agreement on the need for continued risk-related education, collaboration, and coordination.

Symposium Goal

The goal of the 1st Annual Intertribal Risk Analysis Symposium was to assist the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's in its mission by creating an opportunity to

"Improve the ability of American Indian communities to recognize and assess risk factors related to terrorism on or near the reservation, thereby increasing the capabilities of tribal governments to prepare for the economic consequences associated with an attack." (CREATE, 2006 "Terrorism Risk Ranking of American Indian Gaming Communities" Activity Synopsis, USC CREATE)

This goal was to be achieved at the 1st Annual Intertribal Risk Analysis Symposium by enhancing the understanding of terrorism risk and risk analysis through the creation of opportunities for dialogue, networking, and partnerships between American Indian communities, tribal governments, non-tribal communities and businesses, gaming enterprises, tribal colleges, and interested local citizens.

Symposium Objectives

Jointly educate American Indian and non-Indian communities in Risk Factor Identification, Risk Analysis, Cost Estimation, by providing instruction, materials, and oral presentations related to:

  1. Cultural Perceptions of Risk
  2. Identification of Terrorism Event Risk Factors
  3. Risk Ranking of Terrorism Events
  4. Potential Terrorism Event Cost Estimation
  5. Tribal Community Terrorism Risk "Round Table" Discussion

Symposium Educational Presentations

To meet the stated symposium objectives, a series of educational presentations were coordinated and given by Indian and non-Indians from across the nation considered leaders in their respective fields of expertise. Educational presentations were divided into four related tracks:

  1. Modern Terrorism and American Indians
  2. Tribal and Other Government Relations
  3. Risk Analysis
  4. Protecting Tribal Enterprises

Key note and introductory presentations focused on historical and current relationships between Indians and non-Indians related to terrorism.

  1. "Working Together" and "U.S. Department of Homeland Security"
  2. "Homeland Insecurity: Tribes and Risk"
  3. "American Indian Warriors in U.S. History: 1776 to Today's War Against Terror"
  4. "Reducing Risk by Being a Good Neighbor "

A total of fourteen technical presentations, each approximately 20 minutes long following standard conference presentation length, were given by both Indians and non Indians to an ethnically, technically, and culturally diverse audience. Titles of the presentations, divided into the fours tracks, were:

  1. Modern Terrorism and American Indians "American Indian Cultural Considerations" "Developing a Tribal Emergency Management Network" "American Indian Nursing in Terrorism Preparedness" "Incident Management in Terrorism Events Indian Country
  2. Tribal and Other Government Relations "Overcoming Collaboration Challenges via Scenarios" "The Common Sense Approach to Emergency Management" "Tribal, State, Local Governments: Working Together" "Educational Opportunities for American Indians"
  3. Risk Analysis "Concepts of Risk" "Basics of Risk Analysis and Risk Analysis Tools" "Risk Screening"
  4. Protecting Tribal Enterprises "Bioterrorism: Risks to Tribal Food Enterprises" "Adapting Tribal Operations to Evolving Threats" "Being Prepared: Images from Real Life Experiences" "Reducing Risks to Gaming Operations"

Tribal Representation

Tribal members from twelve (12) different tribal communities were in attendance. Tribal representatives from throughout the upper Midwest, primarily Wisconsin and Michigan, and from as far away as Washington State, North Carolina, and New York, attended. Tribes represented at the 1st Annual Intertribal Risk Analysis Symposium included:

Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin Red Lake Band of Chippewa
Menomineee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin Potawotami
Bay Mills Indian Community Crow
Devils Lake Sioux Lac du Flambeau
Ho-Chunk (2 Bands) Puyallup Tribe of Indians
Oneida Indian Nation of New York Cherokee Indian Nation
Southeast Oneida Tribal Services

Non-Tribal Representation

U.S. Government agencies, private corporations, colleges and universities, and interested individuals participated as attendees, presenters, supporters, and/or sponsors. Non-tribal representation at the 1st Annual Intertribal Risk Analysis Symposium included:

United States Department of Homeland Security, Washington, D.C.
Center for Research & Economic Analysis of Terrorism Events, Los Angeles, California
Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, North Carolina
Church of Holy Apostles, Episcopal Church, Oneida, Wisconsin
DMJMH&N AECOM, Los Angeles, California
Radisson Hotels, Green Bay, Wisconsin
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California
Lloyd W. Mitchell Jr. Fund, Spanaway, Washington
Smithfield Community, Smithfield, Virginia
City of Milwaukee Police Union, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut
Kortlander Ranch, Crow, Montana
State of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin
Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, Tennessee
State of Wisconsin House of Representatives, Madison, Wisconsin
Citizen's for Equal Rights Alliance, Yakima, Washington
City of Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Brown County, Green Bay, Wisconsin
Outagamie County, Seymour, Wisconsin
Village of Howard, Wisconsin

American Indian Gaming Entity Representation

The three largest American Indian gaming complexes in the State of Wisconsin, those with large casinos with attached conference centers and hotels, were also represented:

  1. Oneida Indian Bingo and Casino, Oneida, Wisconsin
  2. Ho-Chunk Hotel, Casino, and Convention Center, Baraboo, Wisconsin
  3. Potawatomi Indian Bingo and Casino, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Risk Roundtable

At the conclusion of the educational sessions, a "Risk Roundtable", open to all attendees, was conducted. A qualitative review of the comments yielded four themes:

  1. Terrorism risk education in the American Indian community is needed,
  2. At risk communities and tribal operations need to be prioritized for funding,
  3. Risk reduction and incident response coordination and communication between tribes, non-tribal governments, and local or regional entities must be improved.
  4. Cultural sensitivity, when possible, should be intertwined with government activities.

Social Activities

An essential component of the "Working Together" theme included a variety of social and recreational activities. Many of theses activities were sponsored and therefore provided at no cost to the participant. Social activities included, but were not limited to Green Bay Packer Stadium viewing, an Oneida Reservation Tour, an Evening Social, Bingo, Casino Gaming, a Small Group Buffet Luncheon, and Entertainment by the Oneida Nation Tribal Singers.

Support and Sponsorship Recognition

Various businesses, corporations, and individuals provided an array of support, either directly or indirectly, for the 1st Annual Intertribal Risk Analysis Symposium. Support included discounts, supplies, food, beverages, bingo and casino coupons, and other sponsorships. Supporters and sponsors included, but were not limited to:

DMJMH&N AECOM, Los Angeles, California
Northwest Airlines, Egan, Minnesota
Lloyd W. Mitchell Jr. Fund, Spanaway, Washington
Dr. Anne Garland, Smithfield, Virginia
Alaska Airlines, Seattle, Washington
Mr. James and Rebecca Sarni, Los Angeles, California
Radisson Hotels, Green Bay, Wisconsin
Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans In Science
American Indian Science and Engineering Society
Various Tribal Member Sponsors and Supporters, and
The symposium host: the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin

Concluding Remarks

American Indian tribal communities and non-Indian communities are interested and are committed to working together to better understand risk, risk analysis, and economic impacts of terrorism events. All symposium participants indicated that joint Indian-non-Indian educational activities related to risk are imperative to enhance future Homeland Security efforts on or near Indian reservations. Both tribal and casino officials of American Indian gaming communities understand that they may be at higher risk due to the nature of their business and therefore, all community members must learn to identify and asses risk factors.